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Science supported to a significant degree by digital information-processing and/or computational technologies, or wholly based on these. Note that such a definition is functional, not some intrinsic property of the science. Data-based science, that is science which is based wholly or in part on exploiting existing information, is included within this definition. E-Science includes a very broad class of activities, as nearly all information gathering is computer based, or uses information technologies for measuring, recording, reporting, analysing. E-Science often involves intensive use of such technologies: advanced in technique, collaborative or on a large scale (over various possible measures: volumes of information, computational intensity, extent of distribution, variety of information types handled). E-Science can be conducted equally by individuals and small units – in other words, e-Science is equally relevant to small science, and indeed e-Science brings big science within the grasp of the less well-equipped – all you need is a computer.